With the Romanian occupation of Transylvania, the Franz Joseph University of Kolozsvár (today: Cluj Napoca) became Romanian property in 1919. Most of the Hungarian professors fled to Budapest. Nevertheless, the paradox manner of this miserable and hopeless situation of the mutilated country brought a new, hopeful opportunity for Szeged, a city longing for an own University over hundred years. In April 1921, a committee arrived in Szeged to survey the possibilities of accommodating the Faculty of Medicine in the city. The building of the old Primary School of Rókus was chosen to host the Departments of Descriptive and Regional Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Pathology and Pathohistology and Forensic Medicine. This was the very first step in the history of the Department of Anatomy in Szeged. The first chairman of our Department was Prof. Dr. Leo Davida, who after having built up and set up his Department in Kolozsvár, had to flee from the Romanian, losing his work of life. In spring of 1921, Professor Davida at age of 68, with incredible fortitude and faith began to establish a new Department in Szeged. The education had started, Professor Davida retired, and the chairmanship was transferred to his nephew, Prof. Dr. Jenő Davida, who led the Institute until his tragically early death in 1929. The successor of Jenő Davida was Prof. Dr. Ferenc Kiss, the author of those medical textbooks titled „Regional Anatomy” („Tájanatómia”) and „Systematic Anatomy” („Rendszeres bonctan”) having been used and being used by generations of physician up to now. Under the leadership of Ferenc Kiss had the neuroanatomical research begun. After Ferenc Kiss had been invited to Budapest, the next chairman was Prof. Dr. Albert Gellért, leading the Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology over 33 years, established an unique anatomical collection, continued the neuroanatomical research, acquainting the name of the Department of Anatomy of Szeged with the scientific world already in the 1930s. The successor of Professor Gellért was Prof. Dr. Bertalan Csillik, from 1968 until 1993, having enriched the research palette with neurohistochemical methods. Under his leadership were the dissection room and the histological study renewed. The old dissection room was originally the gym of the primary school, with smaller reconstructions functioning as the dissection room of the Department until 1990. Upon the initiative of Professor Csillik a brass embossment and a memorial table (the work of a sculptor, Sándor Tóth) next to the entrance door of the Anatomy Museum shrine the memory of Albert Gellért. Bertalan Csillik was followed by Prof. Dr. Zsolt Liposits, leading the Department until his leave for Budapest in 1998. Meanwhile the lecture hall of the building was modernised. 1998-2018: the chairman of the Department is Prof. Dr. András Mihály, disciple of Professor Csillik, active follower of the neuroanatomical and neurohistological school of Szeged. At present, the Head of the Institute is Prof Dr. Antal Nógrádi.